There are a very large number of books written about World War II, a great many in recent years have attempted to address the post war bias of the war time propaganda, which whilst necessary at the time, has continued today. Last month for example the “spirit of the blitz” and the associated stories was resurrected, without comment, to encourage people during the current crisis. Yet whilst the grand narratives tell a particular story, the individual can often be forgotten. Thanks to the amazing photographs of Marjorie Baker, of Henfield, whose images of villagers can stand in line for all those who served and survived, lived and loved during the war years; along with personal recollections taken from the 70s to the early 21st century. What follows are individual stories, not complete, but like photographs, verbal images framed in time.
The Day War Broke Out
‘That particular Sunday I was at the 11 o’clock service and because of the imminence of some sort of conflict, the T.A. and all sorts of people were at the service. It was announced by Canon Lee that war had been declared and all those in uniform were marched out, then we were sent home, the whole congregation was told to file out’.
Ron Taylor, choir boy
‘One memory …going to Woolworth’s and having an identity disc engraved and having to wear it on my wrist….from an old drawer a scratched silver bracelet, with the very faint inscription.’
‘Anyway, I was very frightened because Goering said he was going to have his tea on June 26th in the café in the garden at Weymouth. He didn’t get there of course, but it was quite daunting.’
Evacuation and Evacuees
The West Sussex County Times of 1st September 1939 carried the headline ‘Horsham is Ready for National Emergency’. On that day four train loads of evacuees from London arrived at Horsham station where buses took them to village distribution centres, with 3,000 billeted in Horsham.
‘…They didn’t want an evacuee. She had told me the day I got there. Well, they were told if they didn’t have an evacuee they would have to have a soldier and she didn’t want a soldier’s big boots on her carpet so they had me….and of course I may have said I had passed my 11+ and her daughter hadn’t, which they resented and they got over the situation by sending me for walks all the time. They sent me to the British Restaurant because they couldn’t bear me home at lunchtime, but of course I came from a far more cultured home, they didn’t have a book’.
A School Child’s Refugee Tale
The Museum has copies of 40 letters written by Ernest Dieter Ball, a German Jewish refugee who lived at Horsham from 1939 to 1941. The following are just a few of his comments.
4th September 1939
‘I am writing to you from the evacuation …The atmosphere against the Germans is very strong and it is best not to say a word of German on the street because of the reactions are unpleasant, even when you are refugees.’
1st November 1939
‘The school is still very easy for me. I do not think we are going to have examinations because we only get half the lessons we should have. We are not having any music lessons, French or English literature. The worst is woodwork, but from now on I am not going to have it any more.’
‘Last Sunday, I was a casualty in an air raid practice and I had a wound in my upper leg , it was all very realistic, as a woman who pretended to be hysterical, was my mother and she kept on crying like an ordinary person would have done. Then they put me on a stretcher and then in an ambulance and so off we went to the Military Hospital. (Probably the Base Hospital, Roffey). There, we were put in beds and the doctors let the nurses practice on us.’
16th January 1940
Ernest recounts that in a fancy dress competition run by his school, one boy won
‘second prize as Joe Stalin. A boy from Vienna got the third prize and fourth prize was a Spanish gypsy girl which was me…’
The School at War
‘In schools they had great big sheets of pictures of booby trap bombs. There was one I can always remember called a butterfly bomb…I can always remember in Broadbridge School the sheet on the wall showing all do not touch these and there were pictures of little things like that you know’
‘Then at school, when evacuees were absorbed into the school, they tended to get blamed for everything. If things went wrong they blamed the evacuees because they were different and they spoke differently……There were always jokes about them. They used to say that if they found a milk bottle or two they had found a cow’s nest! All sorts of silly things like that, rather cruel really’.
Mr & Mrs R. Taylor
Hostility to Germans
‘I can remember there was a family in the village (Broadbridge)…he had married a German lady before the war. Now I know that people in the village didn’t know whether to speak to her and the awful thing to me now is my mother said, ‘Oh I spoke to that Mrs so and so she’s really quite a nice person’. Now when you think back, that sounds awful, but there was so much suspicion as I can understand….’
‘German children must be given chance to be pure and clean’.
A Rotary speaker on ‘Task to be faced when victory is won’, WSCT 5.9.41
POWS (Prisoners of War)
‘We had Italian prisoners of war in the village (Mannings Heath). They were very good at weaving baskets, getting five shillings a basket, and they also tapped all the birch trees for some kind of ‘hooch’. We employed one of them, they were quite docile. They left, and then we had the German prisoners. They had a tremendous following among the girls. Then we had some Polish lads, they were very sad, they were going to be sent home, many did not want to go….One man dressed himself in his best uniform and carefully hung himself rather than be sent back…’
John Christian, Brookfield Farm
Bombing and the Air War
‘Our first call to Portsmouth meant we were there for three days and nights with no food or drink provided. After this experience our crews carried our own supplies…later the Canadians gave us a mobile kitchen…they paid us £3 a week, no overtime. If you were out on a job, you stayed until it was complete …we did three duties on a row.’
Ken Parfitt, Fire Service
‘…If you went to see people of those years it was quite common to walk around in people’s houses and see a nail in the ceiling with a model aeroplane hanging on a string and well, not everybody, but lots of people had these.’
‘…We had about four on this particular night and I always remember my mum down on her hands and knees watching the garden burning down …. trying to, sobbing away, throwing earth over it trying to put the damn thing out. But we had two or three others that did partly set fire to part of the house, but the warden came in and put it out. And then it was funny because the all clear went and we went back to bed and I thought, that’s funny, I can see stars up in the sky …we could see this hole in the ceiling…and a hole in the floor. And we went downstairs…this nice polished oak table, it had a neat half a circle out of the edge of it…this thing had rolled underneath the settee.’
Alan McMillan, talking about an incendiary bomb
Blackout cloth was in high demand. Mr & Mrs Laker, who had an outfitters shop in West Street, Horsham, would drive up to London in the evening to buy it, often in difficult circumstances. Queues would form and many of the local girls often used the cloth for other purposes. The price was 3/11d a yard.
‘One day, Walter Jarrett came into the shop and said, ‘There’s a Messerschmitt down at Plummers Plain’. So we got in the car and went and cut a lump off the wing, quite illegal!…Walt and me, we get the wing out of the back and into the yard and we still had the metal cutters with us so we cut it up into little strips and sold it at sixpence a time for my Spitfire Fund, including the bits with the crosses on!’
‘We had an old dog, Pat …mongrel dog and he’d disappear during the day….if you were outside and the air raid siren went, you’d see this little figure in the distance and he would come hurtling up the path and if you had the door open he’d go straight up through the house out the back and straight down the shelter. He was the first one in!’ – A pet’s experience
‘They were strange things because they had a little motor and you could hear them go ‘chung chung chung chung, chung, chung’. And then they’d stop and you didn’t hear anything and then there was a bang when they hit the deck…you’d listen and they were a bit nerve racking. You thought, where’ve they gone? Then there’d be ‘thing bang’, but the thing was, we used to all say, if you heard the bang you knew you were still alive.’
Alan McMillan, talking about doodlebugs
The Royal Observer Corps had to plot the course of the doodlebugs so the pilots could be told where to intercept them. In 1945, according to the West Sussex County Times, some 23 fly bombs fell in the Horsham area in three months during the height of the bombing:
‘The first of the robots to land in the district came down at Marlands, Itchingfield on 6th June causing damage to the stables and houses on the estate and killing about 50 chickens’.
On 20th June, Christ’s Hospital was damaged and a woman was slightly hurt after a flying bomb exploded in mid-air when it was shot at. The last one in the area was recorded at Rudgwick on the 13th August 1944, whilst on 21st July 1944 a field of wheat at Chesworth Farm suffered considerable damage.
Romance and Marriage
‘I met my husband in the war….he was on a searchlight and gun turret in a field at the bottom of our garden. He used to peep at me through the allotments when he was supposed to be looking for enemy aircraft.’
‘When I was married in 1943 everybody sort of came together and some gave a bit of that and some a bit of this and we managed…I borrowed my wedding dress. It was second hand. A very close friend of mine who was about my size, and she got it. I don’t know how she got it. You had to give up coupons so if you bought a wedding dress you might go without shoes….my sister had it after that. So that wedding dress did three weddings.’
Horsham had five cinemas to choose from: the Ritz (now the Capitol), the Odeon, the Capitol, the Carfax and the Central. The radio was run by an accumulator, a large heavy battery that had to be recharged when run down, often at Quicks in East Street.
‘The funny thing was with the old radios half the time we couldn’t understand what was on it, you know. It was so crackly and that sort of thing’. (Alan McMillan)
‘Dances continued at the Drill Hall, at the Nelson Arms and at the Black Horse, both formal and informal affairs going on throughout the war. Many of the young ladies of the town also went along to the ‘Searchlight Dances’ held at the camp at Broadbridge Heath’.
Jack Scrase, quoted by Cliff White
In It Together?
‘The class divisions in the town were very sharp in those days; the golf club had a County Section, a Town Section and Artisans who couldn’t use the Club House. Very often the Artisan members were the best golfers! It was in the town itself that the divisions were very sharp, between the professions and between the trades people and between them and the shop workers and the farmers who came in, and didn’t they protect those divisions closely.’
John Buchanan, junior reporter for the WSCT talking to Cliff White about the Land Army
‘We had Land Girls in about 1941. I think their role was to entertain the farmers’ sons! In the main the girls did very well.’
John Christian, Brookfield Farm
There were armed hold-ups, at the Ritz Cinema and the Lorna Doone Café, Southwater where the man demanding £5 was fought off by the female owner.
‘The Horsham Home Guard marched out one day with a Smith’s gun. It had made up wheels, a barrel and when you met the enemy, you turned it on its side and fired. It fired a 7lb jam tin full of nails! That’s how well prepared we were’.
John Christian, Brookfield Farm
‘Sunday a joint
Monday cold meat
Tuesday 6d of scrag end for a stew
Wednesday either mince, sausages or rissoles
Thursday liver or steak
Friday was fish
Saturday corned beef, sausages or fish and chips from ‘Pizers’ in Elm Grove’
Mrs Shirley Glaysher on food during WWII
‘Living in the country of course, with the rationing, you always knew somebody that caught rabbits. Rabbit was a staple diet and after a while you boiled it, you stewed it, you roasted it, you made it into broth, you did everything you could think of to try and decide to get rid of the fact that it was rabbit’.
John Buchanan tells a story of Councillor Nellie Laughton who liked to help the police. He says:
‘A convoy of Canadian tanks was coming through the town. A dozen maybe…somehow three got into Middle Street. The Canadian’s own military police saw there was a problem with the narrowness of Middle Street and diverted the rest around the Carfax. This was Nellie’s big moment…Nellie went down Middle Street ordering the three tanks back. She waved her arms and shouted, all black hat, scarf and handbag, a sort of over-sized bat….The man in the first tank’s turret made the mistake of turning the turret round. The gun was not all that big, but it went through a draper’s plate glass window. The man in the turret reversed it and the gun went through a chemist’s shop window on the other side. After that all the tank turrets swung, as the soldiers followed Nellie’s instructions. There seemed to be glass, curtains and underwear all over Middle Street and draped on the guns…Did we report it? No, censorship’.